Carotenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons belonging to the terpenes with the empirical formula C₄₀Hₓ, which occur as red-yellow natural pigments in many plants. The best-known carotene is β- carotene (beta- carotene) . It is the most important precursor of vitamin A and is therefore also referred to as provitamin A in production plants1TP9 from Subitec is the formation of ß- carotene in a one-step process in the Cultivation modules performed for highest yield .